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解读我国档案行政处罚的基本原则

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liao  cheng

 

xingzhengchufadeyuanzeshiduixingzhengchufadeshishipubianzhidaoyiyidezhunze。genju《zhonghuarenmingongheguoxingzhengchufafa》(yixiajiancheng《xingzhengchufafa》)maiqiuguanwangchufayuanzedeguiding,jiehedangangongzuoshijian,《danganxingzhengchufachengxuguiding》(yixiajiancheng《chufachengxuzanxingguiding》)disantiaoguidingleshishidanganxingzhengchufayingdangzunxundejibenyuanze,zheiduiguifandanganxingzhengguanlibumenyifazhidangdexingwei,tigaodanganxingzhengguanlibumendezhifashuiping,baohugongmin、farenhuozheqitazuzhidehefaquanyizhongyaoyiyi。

一、处罚法定原则

《xingzhengchufafa》disantiaoguiding,“gongmin、farenhuozheqitazuzhiweifanxingzhengguanlizhixudexingwei,yingdangjiyuxingzhengchufade,yizhaobenfayoufalv、faguihuozheguizhangguiding,bingyouxingzhengjiguanyizhaobenfaguidingdechengxushishi。meiyoufadingyijuhuozhebuzunshoufadingchengxude,xingzhengchufawuxiao。”gaiguidingzuochulesanfangmiandefadingyaoqiu,jizhifazhutifading、chufayijufading、chufachengxufading。congdanganxingzhengchufashijianlaikan,jutibaokuoyixianeirong:

(1)shishidanganxingzhengchufadezhutishifadingzhuti。genju《danganfa》diershisitiao“zailiyongdanganguandedanganzhong,youqiankuandiyixiang、dierxiang、disanxiangweifaxingweide,youxianjiyishangrenminzhengfudanganxingzhengguanlibumenjiyujinggao,keyibingchufakuan”、diershiwutiao“xieyunjinzhichujingdedanganhuozheqifuzhijianchujingde,youhaiguanyuyimeishou”deguidinghe《chufachengxuzanxingguiding》diertiaodeguiding,danganxingzhengchufazhinengyoujuyoufadingchufaquandexianjiyishangrenminzhengfudanganxingzhengguanlibumenhuozheguojiahaiguanshishi。

(2)shishidanganxingzhengchufadeyijufading。jishishixingzhengchufabixuyoufalv 、faguihuoguizhangdeguiding,yaofuhe《chufachengxuzanxingguiding》disantiaodiyikuandeguiding,ji“yi《xingzhengchufafa》《danganfa》《danganfashishibanfa》dengfalv、faguiweiyiju”,zuodaoshishiqingchu、zhengjuchongfen。tongshi,budeshanzikuoda《danganfa》diershisitiao、diershiwutiaoguidingdekeyijiyuxingzhengchufadefanwei,fouzezuochudexingzhengwuxiao。

(3)shishidanganxingzhengchufadechengxuhefa。chufafadingyuanzebujinyaoqiushitihefa,tongshiyeyaoqiushishichufadechengxufuhefalvguiding,jizunshoufadingchengxu,《chufachengxuzanxingguiding》duidanganxingzhengchufadeshishizuochulechengxufangmiandeyangeguiding,weifanfadingchengxuzuochudedanganxingzhengchufayebujuyoufalvxiaoli。

二、公正、公开原则

《xingzhengchufafa》disitiaoguiding,“xingzhengchufazunxungongzheng、gongkaideyuanze”。gongzhengyuanzeshizhizaishishixingzhengchufashibujinyaoqiuxingshishihefade,shizaiziyoucailiangdefadingfudufanweineishishide,erqieyaoqiuzaineirongshanghefa,fuhelifamude。gongkaijiushimaiqiuguanwangxingzhengchufadeguojiayouguanguidingbixushitongguogongbuchengxuxiangshehuigongkaide,yaoyouxiangduifangdecanyuhelejie,yitigaogongminduixingzhengjiguanjiqishishidexingzhengchufadexinrendu,tongshijianduxingzhengjiguanjiqigongwuyuanyifa、gongzhengxingshizhiquan,baozhangxiangduifangdehefaquanyi。jianchichufagongkaiyuanze,zuizhuyaodeshishishixingzhengchufadeguochenghejieguoyaogongkai。《chufachengxuzanxingguiding》zunxun《xingzhengchufafa》maiqiuguanwangbaozhengxingzhengchufagongzheng、gongkaizhidudeguiding,zuochulexiangxiguiding,rubiaomingshenfenzhidu(dishisantiao)、gaozhizhidu(dishiqitiao)、tingquyijianzhidu(dishibatiao、diershiertiao)、tingzhengzhidu(diershisantiao、diershisitiao)、huibizhidu(dishisitiao)、diaochazhidu(dishiwutiao)。

 三、处罚与教育相结合原则

《xingzhengchufafa》diwutiaoguiding,“shishixingzhengchufa,jiuzhengweifaxingwei,yinggaijianchichufayujiaoyuxiangjiehe,jiaoyugongmin、farenhuozheqitazuzhizijueshoufa。”chufayujiaoyuxiangjieheyuanzejiushiyaodadaodanganxingzhengchufabujinshizhicaidanganweifaxingweideshouduan,erqieyeyaoqidaojiaoyudezuoyong。chufademudebujinshi“cheng”yirandedanganweifaxingwei,erqieshi“jie”weirandedanganweifaxingwei。tongguochengfayujiaoyushirenmenrenshidaoweifaxingweideweihaixing,congerpeiyangzijueshoufadeyishi。dangran,duiyuyirandedanganweifaxingweidejiaoyubixuyichufaweihoudun,bunengyijiaoyudaitichufa。yizhao《xingzhengchufafa》deguiding,《danganfa》diwuzhang“falvzeren”、《danganfashishibanfa》diwuzhang“faze“deyouguanguidingjuntixianlechufayujiaoyuxiangjieheyuanzedejingshen。

四、处罚救济原则

chufajiujiyuanzezhixingzhengzhutiduixiangduifangshishidexingzhengchufashi,bixubaozhengxiangduifangqudejiujidetujing,fouzebunengshishixingzhengchufa。chufajiujiyuanzeshibaozhengxingzhengchufagongzheng、hefaxingshideshihoubujiucuoshi。weibaozhengzaishishidanganxingzhengchufaguochengzhongchongfenweihugongmin、farenhuozheqitazuzhidehefaquanyi,《chufachengxuzanxingguiding》yizhao《xingzhengchufafa》zuolexuduoguiding,rudisitiaohediershiliutiaoguidingdangshirenxiangyouyifashenqingxingzhengfuyihuozhetiqixingzhengsusongdequanli、qingqiupeichangquan,dishisitiaoguidingdangshirenxiangyoushenqingjuyouhuibiqingxingdedanganzhifarenyuanhuibidequanli,dishiqitiaoguidingdangshirenxiangyoulejiequan,dishibatiaohediershiertiaoguidingdangshirenxiangyouchenshuquan、shenbianquan,diershitiaoguidingxingzhengchufajuedingshubixuzaimingdeshixiang,diershisantiaoguidingdangshirenxiangyoutingzhengquan,disanshiyitiaoguidinggongmin、farenhuozheqitazuzhixiangyoushensuhuojianjuquan。

五、过罚相当原则

guofaxiangdangyuanzeshizhixingzhengzhutiduiweifaxingweirenshiyongxingzhengchufa,beichufadexingweizhongleihechufafuduyaoyuweifaxingweirendeweifaguocuoxiangshiying,jibuqingguozhongfa,yebuzhongguoqingfa,congerbimianxingzhengchufajiqingjizhongdebuheli、bugongzhengqingkuang。guofaxiangdangyuanzebujinshixingzhengchufashiyonghuoshishishisuozunxundeyuanze,yeshixingzhengchufashedingshisuoyingzunxundeyuanze。yaozuodaoshiyonghuoshishixingzhengchufaguofaxiangdang,shouxianyaoquanmianlejie、zhangwoyouguanweifaxingweirendejibenqingkuang(shifouchengnian、jingshenshifouzhengchang、shentishifoujianquandeng);weifashishiheweifaxingweidegezhongqingjie(rumude、dongji、shouduan、weihaihouguo、zaigongtongweifazhongdezuoyongdeng);weifahouderencuotaidu、biaoxiandeng。ranhouyaozhengquerendingweifaxingweirenxiangyingweifaxingweidexingzhi。qici,yaozhengquexuanzeshiyongfalv、fagui,bawohaofalv、faguixiaolidecengcixing、neirongdezhenduixing、jutitiaowenyuxiangyingxingweideshiyingxingdeng。zuihou,haiyaozhengquexingshihaoziyoucailiangquan,genjudangshidangdidexingshijiyouguanzhengcedeng,zaifalv、fagui guidingdefanweineixuanze、quedingzuishidangdechufafudu。zaidanganxingzhengchufashijianzhong,yinganzhao《danganfa》diwuzhang“falvzeren”he《danganfashishibanfa》diwuzhang“faze”deguiding,renzhendiaochahefenxidanganxingzhengweifaxingweigeanqingkuang,tebieshiyaozaiziyoucailiangquandefadingquanxianfanweinei,renzhenzuohao“faze”chufadeshishi,congerbaozhengguofaxiangdang。fouze,zhijieyingxiangdanganxingzhengchufadegongzhengxing、helixing。

 

cankaowenxian:

[1]《zhonghuarenmingongheguoxingzhengchufafa》.1996nian3yue17rigongbu,1996nian10yue1riqishixing。

[2]《zhonghuarenmingongheguodanganfa》.1987nian9yue5ritongguo,1988nian1yue1riqishixing,1996nian7yue5riqixiuzheng。

[3]《zhonghuarenmingongheguodanganfashishibanfa》.1990nian11yue19rifabushixing,tongnian6yue7rizhongxinfabu。

[4]《danganxingzhengchufachengxuzanxingguiding》.2000nian5yue10rifabu,zifabuzhirishixing。

[5]luohaocai.《xingzhengfaxue(xinbianben)》.beijing:beijingdaxuechubanshe,1996.

 

(zuozhexi买球app官网baoguanliyongkekezhang)

 

(yuanzai《sichuandangan》2005niandi6qi)

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